Acevedo, F., Torres, P., Oomah, D., De Alencar, S.M., Prado, A., Martín-Venegas, R., Albarral-Ávila, V., Burgos-Díaz, C., Ferrer, R., Rubilar, M. (2017) Volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds and in vitro bioactive properties of Chilean Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia Cav.) honey Food Research International. Vol. 94; 20-28.
Ulmo honey originating from Eucryphia cordifolia tree, known locally in the Araucania region as the Ulmo tree is a natural product with valuable nutritional and medicinal qualities. It has been used in the Mapuche culture to treat infections. This study aimed to identify the volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile compounds of Ulmo honey and elucidate its in vitro biological properties by evaluating its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiproliferative and hemolytic properties and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Headspace volatiles of Ulmo honey were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME); non-volatiles/semi-volatiles were obtained by removing all saccharides with acidified water and the compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis. Ulmo honey volatiles consisted of 50 compounds predominated by 20 flavor components. Two of the volatile compounds, lyrame and anethol have never been reported before as honey compounds. The non-volatile/semi-volatile components of Ulmo honey comprised 27 compounds including 13 benzene derivatives accounting 75% of the total peak area. Ulmo honey exhibited weak antioxidant activity but strong antibacterial activity particularly against gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the main strain involved in wounds and skin infections. At concentrations > 0.5%, Ulmo honey reduced Caco-2 cell viability, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner in the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS). The wide array of volatile and non-volatile/semi-volatile constituents of Ulmo honey rich in benzene derivatives may partly account for its strong antibacterial and antiproliferative properties important for its therapeutic use. Our results indicate that Ulmo honey can potentially inhibit cancer growth at least partly by modulating oxidative stress.
Morales, E., Rubilar, M., Burgos-Díaz, C., Acevedo, F., Penning, M., Shene, C. (2017) Alginate/Shellac beads developed by external gelation as a highly efficient model system for oil encapsulation with intestinal delivery. Food Hydrocolloids. Vol. 70; 321-328.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the alginate/shellac combination as wall material (WM) to develop an oil encapsulation system by external gelation. The Taguchi method, a powerful process optimization tool, was used to determine the optimal process conditions in which to prepare beads with a high oil encapsulation efficiency (EE). The effect of the variables: sunflower oil concentration in the emulsion (E[oil]: 30 and 50 %w/w), emulsion/wall material ratio (E/WM: 80/20 and 20/80 %v/v) and concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2: 5 and 15 g/L) on the EE were evaluated. The bead morphology, the total oil content of beads (OCB), mean particle size, sphericity factor (SF) and swelling degree (Sw) were also investigated. Finally, the optimal alginate/shellac beads were submitted to in vitro digestion. The results showed that the beads formed under optimal conditions reached an EE value of 98.7% and OCB of 38.6%. The oil concentration in the emulsion was the variable that most affected the oil EE. The beads obtained were semi-spherical, smooth-surfaced, non-aggregated, with a particle size of 2.13 mm and SF of 0.08. The Sw of the developed alginate/shellac beads was unaffected at acid pH values; however, beads showed swelling under basic conditions (pH 7). The optimal beads showed more oil released during intestinal digestion than during gastric digestion. These findings have important implications for oil encapsulation and the design of delivery systems of oil soluble compounds, which are useful in the food industry for developing novel products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds.
Burgos-Díaz, C., Hernández, X., Wandersleben, T., Barahona, T., Medina, C., Quiroz, A., Rubilar, M. (2017) Influence of multilayer O/W emulsions stabilized by proteins from a novel lupin variety AluProt-CGNA and ionic polysaccharides on d-limonene retention during spray-drying. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. Vol. 536; 234-241,
Spray drying is the most commonly used technique for the production of dry flavorings. However, the high temperatures used in this process can lead to the loss of volatile molecules. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop different multilayer emulsions as an effective flavor encapsulation system for improving the retention of d-limonene during spray-drying. Thus, the multilayer O/W emulsions were prepared by using protein isolate from a novel protein-rich lupin variety, AluProt-CGNA® (LPIA), and different ionic food grade polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pectin and xanthan gum), and their stability under different environmental stresses was evaluated. Besides, the emulsions were dried at a laboratory scale spray-drier, and the total amount of flavor compounds in the powder was measured. The results showed that the emulsions stabilized with LPIA (mono-layered) were unstable to aggregation at pH values around their isolectric point (pH ∼4.6) and temperature values between 30 and 90 °C. However, emulsions stabilized with two and three-layered of polysaccharides presented greater physical stability than the emulsion stabilized only with mono-layered membrane, where no phase separation was observed. Moreover, the use of multilayer emulsions as a flavor microencapsulation system was able to increase the retention of volatile molecules during spray-drying. The three-layered emulsions stabilized by sodium alginate and pectin showed the highest values of flavor retention in this study. The utilization of multilayer emulsion as a system of encapsulation of volatile compounds could be a potential alternative to improve the stability of emulsions (O/W) and thus reduce the loss of volatile aroma during food processing and subsequent storage.
Labra, R.E., Sánchez, M.P. (2017) Intellectual capital of nations: a comparative analysis of assessment models. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Vol. 15; 169-183
Although intellectual capital (IC) is the most important factor determining the economic growth, the literature on country-level IC is not quite enough, and more advances are required to improve the assistance to policy makers in the knowledge era. There are different approaches to measuring and managing intangibles, which opens research opportunities and offers new tools to manage IC. This paper contributes to identify, select, and classify models to evaluate and manage intangibles at the country level. The models were identified through a systematic literature review. They were analyzed and compared using cluster analysis. The results show that the models can be grouped into two main categories according to origin and structure. Despite the differences among the models, the reports tend to converge, because of which the decision about which model to choose can be based on pragmatic issues, such as availability of data, previous knowledge, and complexity of reports.
Gajardoa, H., Quian, R., Soto-Cerda, B. (2017) Agronomic and Quality Assessment of Linseed Advanced Breeding Lines Varying in Seed Mucilage Content and Their Use for Food and Feed. Crop Science Abstract – Crop Breeding & Genetics. Vol. 57;2979-2990
Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is well known for containing functional compounds with health-related benefits. Assessed were the agronomic and seed-quality traits of 13 linseed advanced breeding lines (ABLs) varying in seed mucilage content (SMC) that could be better suited to Chilean environments and food and feed market needs. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant genotype and environment effects for most of the traits assessed. Seed mucilage content ranged from 0.89 to 5.45%, and various ABLs exhibited similar yield and yield-related traits to the controls, but some outperformed them for harvest index, plant height, and days to 5% flowering. The yellow-seeded ABLs showed the highest and lowest oil and hull content, respectively, as compared with the brown-seeded lines. The majority of the ABLs exhibited high linolenic acid content, ∼60%. The four most promising ABLs were further characterized for the content of the cyanogenic glycosides (CGs) linustatin and neolinustatin, where LuCGNA11 and LuCGNA67 had the lowest values for both CGs. We evaluated the effects of two ABLs contrasting in SMC on laying hen weight (control = 1794 g), egg production (control = 117 eggs), and egg weight (control = 62.9 g) over a 4-wk period. Hens fed the low SMC diet had an increase of 78.6 g, 13 eggs, and 3.86 g, while the high SMC diet had a reduction of 36.8 g, 25 eggs, and 2.8 g for body weight, egg production, and egg weight, respectively. These new high and low SMC ABLs offer opportunities to the food and feed industry for the generation of new value-added products.
López, A., Gajardo, H., Stange, C., Federico, M. (2017) Ingeniería metabólica del contenido de carotenoides en Brassica napus L. a través de la sobreexpresión semilla-específica de un gen PSY endógeno. Revista agronómica del noroeste argentino. Vol. 37;133-143.
En plantas, el primer paso en la biosíntesis de los carotenoides es catalizado por la enzima fitoeno sintetasa (PSY). PSY cataliza la condensación de dos moléculas de geranil-geranil difosfato para producir fitoeno sintasa, un carotenoide incoloro. La sobreexpresión de genes PSY bacterianos (CrtB) y vegetales han aumentado el contenido de carotenoides en varias especies de plantas. En muchos casos, la elección del transgén ha demostrado ser crucial para alcanzar niveles más altos de carotenoides en plantas transgénicas. En colza, la sobreexpresión de CrtB aumentó los niveles de carotenoides en semilla 50 veces pero la sobreexpresión de un PSY de origen vegetal no ha sido reportada. De esta manera, el objetivo de este estudio fue sobreexpresar en semilla uno de los seis genes PSY endógenos presentes en este cultivo para lograr un mayor incremento en el contenido de carotenoides. Usando Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Brassica napus cv. Westar fue transformado con un vector binario que contiene la región codificante del gen BnaC.PSYa bajo el control del promotor de Lectina de soja (pCambia2300-Lec::BnaC.PSYa-6XHys). Seis eventos transgénicos fértiles fueron confirmados por análisis de PCR. La expresión del transgen fue evaluada por RT-PCR convencional y cuantitativa en tiempo real en semillas T3 a 30 y 60 días post antesis (dpa). Todos los eventos sobreexpresaron BnaC.PSYa-6XHys y no se detectó silenciamiento de los miembros de la familia PSY. Sin embargo, la cuantificación por HPLC reveló una leve modificación (2X) en el contenido de carotenoides. Estrategias futuras para maximizar el contenido de carotenoides en semillas de colza son discutidas.
Osorio, C., Udallb, J., Salvo-Garrido, H., Maureira-Butler, I. (2017) Development and characterization of InDel markers for Lupinus luteus L. (Fabaceae) and cross-species amplification in other Lupin species. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 31; 44-47
Strong artificial selection and/or natural bottle necks may limit genetic variation in domesticated species. Lupinus luteus, an orphan temperate crop, has suffered diversity reductions during its bitter/sweet alkaloid domestication history, limiting breeding efforts and making molecular marker development a difficult task. The main goal of this research was to generate new polymorphic insertion–deletion (InDel) markers to aid yellow lupin genetics and breeding. By combining genomic reduction libraries and next generation sequencing, several polymorphic InDel markers were developed for L. luteus L.